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domingo, 29 de junho de 2008

Historical Division of Hebrew (Tsvi Sadan)

Historical Division of Hebrew

Tsvi Sadan (Tsuguya Sasaki)
ts @
Last update: 7 April 2000 (2 Nisan 5760)

Biblical Hebrew (לשון מקרא): 1000BCE-200BCE

  • Archaic Biblical Hebrew: verse of the Pentateuch and the Early Prophets
  • Standard Biblical Hebrew: Biblical prose until the Babylonian Exile
  • Late Biblical Hebrew: Chronicles and other later books after the Babylonian Exile

Mishnaic Hebrew (לשון חכמים): 200BCE-500CE

  • Mishnaic Hebrew I / Tannaitic Hebrew: 200BCE-200CE: from the rise of Rabbinic Judaism until the compilation of the Mishna
  • Mishnaic Hebrew II / Amoraic Hebrew: 200CE-500CE: until the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud

Medieval Hebrew (לשון תקופת הביניים): 500-1780

Modern Hebrew (עברית חדשה): 1780-

  • Maskilic Hebrew: 1780-1880: Haskala period
  • Modern Hebrew proper: 1881- : after the arrival of Eliezer Ben-Yehuda to Palestine

Hebrew in the Period 200-1880

  • Essentially no function as a spoken language: function of a high variety (written/liturgical language) in the Jewish diglossia with a Jewish language as a low variety (spoken language)

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