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domingo, 6 de janeiro de 2008

History of the Hebrew Language

History of the Hebrew Language
David Steinberg

History of the Ancient and Modern Hebrew Language
By David Steinberg

Home page

Biblical Hebrew Poetry - Reconstructing the Original Oral, Aural and Visual Experience

Table of Contents

1. Survey of the Semitic languages;
History of Hebrew from its pre-history to the present

2.1. Biblical Hebrew

2.2. Mishnaic Hebrew

2.3. Between the Mishnah

and the Revival of Hebrew in the Late 19th Century

2.4. Modern or Israeli Hebrew

2.5. The “Feel” of Biblical vs. Israeli Hebrews

2.6. Israeli Hebrew and Modern Arabic – a Few Differences and Many Parallels

3. Select Bibliography

4. Tables and Excurses

Illustration - The Semitic Family of Languages

Box 1 - Scripts and Scripture

Excursus 1 - Evolution of Pronunciation and Stress Patterns

Table 1 - History of Stress and Pronunciation of the Hebrew Pronoun

Box 2 - Third Person Masculine Pronominal Suffix: A Problem of Timing

Table 2 - Stressed Noun Suffixes in Biblical Hebrew

Table 2a Locative ה

Table 3 - History of Stress and Pronunciation of the Hebrew Verb

Excursus 2 - Phonemic Structure of Hebrew

a. What is a Phoneme?

Table 4 - Consonantal Phonemes in Biblical, Tiberian Masoretic and Israeli Hebrew

Table 5 – Vowel System of Tiberian Hebrew

b. Ancient Hebrew Orthography Provides Some, But Not Much, Guidance Regarding the Placement, and Nature of Vowels

Box 3 - Diphthongs

Box 4 - Matres Lectionis (Vowel Letters) 1

Box 5 - Matres Lectionis (Vowel Letters) 2

Box 6 - Matres Lectionis in the Biblical Text

The Three Orthographic Elements in the Masoretic Text

Table 6 - Proto-Semitic Phonemes (Consonants) Exhibiting Sound Shifts in Hebrew and Their Equivalents in Aramaic and Classical Arabic

Table 7 - Biblical Hebrew Phonemes (Consonants) of Multiple Origin and their Equivalents in Proto-Semitic, Classical Arabic, Aramaic and Ugaritic

· Consonants that Were Distinct and Phonemic in the First Temple Period that Have Merged in Modern Pronunciation

· Consonants that Exist in Modern Pronunciation but were absent in Hebrew of the First Temple Period

Excursus 3 - Bi-literal Origin of Many Tri-literal Hebrew Roots

Table 8 - שׁכח In Ps. 137:5 Possible Proto-Semitic Origins of the Root

Table 9 - Consonantal Phonemes in Biblical, Tiberian Masoretic and Israeli Hebrew

Table 10 - Some other Key Phonemic Distinctions in Biblical, Tiberian Masoretic and Israeli Hebrew

Box 7 - Was Vowel Quantity Phonemic in Biblical Hebrew?

Table 11 - Original Typical Semitic 3 Way Opposition in Biblical Hebrew Reduced to 2 Way in Israeli Hebrew with Loss of Emphatics

Table 12 - Voiced, Voiceless and Emphatic Consonants in Biblical Hebrew

Table 13 - Some Impacts of Phonemic Change Between Biblical and Israeli Hebrew

Table 14 - Verbal Stems (Binyanim) in Biblical (above slash) and Israeli Hebrew Using GDL as example

Excursus 4 - Growth in the Number and Range of Israeli Hebrew Verbs

Excursus 5 - Changes in the Meanings of Tenses

Box 8 - The Origin of the “waw conversive"

Table 15 - Tenses Used for English Translations of Some Verb Forms in the Psalms

Table 16 - Psalms Perfect and Imperfect Used in the Same Verse

Excursus 6 - New Word Formation

Excursus 7 - Changes in Syntax

Excursus 8 - Is Israeli Hebrew Unique in Being a Western Language (semantics, use of tenses etc.) Under a Semitic Skin (grammar, vocabulary, semantics, syntax)?

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